The End of the Habitable Zone | Space Time

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  • Published on Jan 24, 2018
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    Learn through active problem-solving at Brilliant: brilliant.org/SpaceTime/ The Sun is getting brighter and the planets in our solar system that are habitable are changing.
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    The Sun is slowly burning through its fuel. Hydrogen is fused into helium in the Sun’s core, producing energy that keeps it shining, and keeping the Earth warm and hospitable to life. But that fuel WILL run out, after which the Sun will swell into a red giant and flash-fry the Earth. But in fact that frying - well, slow-roasting - will begin much earlier. See, the Sun is getting brighter even now. This has complex, and for the most part terrible implications for life. The end of the world will come sooner than you think.
    Hosted and written by Matt O'Dowd
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Comments • 2 316

  • Vaperius
    Vaperius 4 days ago

    >reflective metaparticles
    This is literally a plot element of the Matrix and it did not end well for the humans.

  • DavidFMayerPhD
    DavidFMayerPhD 4 days ago +1

    This fails to take account of the planetary recession from the parent star over time caused by:
    1. Loss of mass of star due to light emission (weakens gravitational attraction).
    2. Loss of mass of star due to stellar wind & sporadic mass ejections (weakens gravitational attraction).
    [I don't list loss of mass of star due to conversion of stellar mass into energy because that is automatically included in 1 & 2 above.]
    3. Outward displacement of planet due to combined effects of light pressure (small) and stellar wind pressure (NOT small). Stellar wind effect is much larger than commonly believed if the planet has a magnetic field. Earth's effective cross section to the Solar wind is much larger than one could calculate from the mere diameter of the planet. The magnetosphere is some ten times the diameter of the Earth, meaning that the cross sectional area is on hundred times the naive expectation.
    It happens to be OUR good fortune that the Earthly recession roughly compensates for the brightening of the Sun. This compensation has been a key factor in Earth's climatic stability over the past 4.5 billion years.

  • Paul Jones
    Paul Jones 5 days ago

    Would it be possible to shift the earth’s orbit slightly by applying a relatively small but constant outward force for a long time. We have a 100 million years to do it after all

  • Steve Lenores
    Steve Lenores 6 days ago

    Ultimate mass extinction. Snap, crackle, pop.

  • Chris Smith
    Chris Smith 7 days ago +1

    I’ve been saying it feels like sun is burning my skin quicker

    • Chris Provo
      Chris Provo 4 days ago

      Me as well. However, I also lack proper pigmentation in my my outer layers of skin. My genetics were coded for a Northern European Climates around 13 thousand years ago. That's not real good for South eastern United State. Lol,

  • Key Master
    Key Master 7 days ago

    This guy moves his body to much when he talks

  • Sideswipe 84
    Sideswipe 84 7 days ago

    If we want to add atmosphere to Mars we must first find a way to give Mars a geomagnetic field. The Earth has a geomagnetic field from its double core. The inner core is solid and spins at a different rate than the Earths outer liquid core. This causes friction. Friction causes Electromagnetism. The extreme heat and pressures powers this force.
    How can we creat enough heat, to create the molten lava at the core of Mars?
    I recommend drilling a hole all the way to the core of Mars. Not just one hole but hundreds of holes all around the Martian world. Then send thousands of war heads to the core of Mars and detonate them simultaneously. That should heat up the core enough to turn it molten.
    Hopefully (if my theory holds true) a geomagnetic field will be produced around Mars. Once that’s achieved then we can work on pumping Mars with an atmosphere.
    We can’t give Mars an atmosphere without a geomagnetic field to protect it from solar winds.

  • jmart0169
    jmart0169 10 days ago

    You need a girlfriend

  • DIY Solar Homestead
    DIY Solar Homestead 10 days ago

    You guys are amazing

  • willdey1
    willdey1 11 days ago

    This is all wrong. I shouldn't be up here. I should be back in school, on the other side of the ocean. Yet you all come to us young people for hope. How dare you!

  • VarietyTV
    VarietyTV 11 days ago

    Further reason why global warming is another leftist propaganda

  • yep yepp
    yep yepp 12 days ago

    According to Elon we should probably blow up the sun before it blows us up or some shit like that

  • Beira Mar
    Beira Mar 12 days ago

    Liar! AOC says its going to happen in 12yrs!!

  • T33K3SS3LCH3N
    T33K3SS3LCH3N 12 days ago +1

    A "libertarian" politician in my country seriously said that we don't need to worry about climate change because the sun will destroy earth one day anyway... Oh well, just gonna wait a few hundred million years then!

  • Rumpel stiltskin
    Rumpel stiltskin 14 days ago

    I wish that one day that evidence must be provided regarding the way in which they came to their conclusions in order to claim something. But then we wouldn’t have any videos like this anymore would we. How the fk could you know? Did you build a sun then sit and examine it? How do you know whats in the core? So we cannot reach the deepest parts of the ocean, but we can know whats in the suns core? BS! Utter BS! Guess after guess same old garbage.

  • junior siway
    junior siway 14 days ago

    You come off a bit arrogant being so sure life will end on earth. Are you from the future making a life for yourself here in your past which is my present to make sure you are in the know which will be your knew since it happened already

  • nelson garcia
    nelson garcia 17 days ago

    Yay we are going to die!’n 😃🥳🥳😜🤩🤩💀💀☠️☠️🆒🆙🆗

  • Nickolas Jeffrey
    Nickolas Jeffrey 18 days ago

    How much hydrogen would it take to refuel the sun so it doesn't become a red giant?

    • James LeDuke
      James LeDuke 17 days ago

      Actually, that isn't the problem. The Sun isn't going to burn all of it's hydrogen. There'll be plenty of hydrogen in its outer layers. The problem is that the sun isn't fully convective. That hydrogen will stay in those outer layers, and never make it to the core to undergo fusion. That's why red dwarfs live so long. They're fully convective.
      There is a way to siphon material off of the sun, however. It's called star lifting, and you can use it to extract the metals from the sun, because that's were almost all the mass in the solar system is. In the process, you can extract helium from the sun, and move the hydrogen from the outer layers into the core. You could keep the sun going for I think 100 billion years this way before you'd need to get your hydrogen from somewhere else.

  • Aliensinnoh
    Aliensinnoh 18 days ago +1

    How long could we increase Earth lifespan with things like solar shades?

  • Jason Mages
    Jason Mages 19 days ago

    Build a functional Dyson sphere around the earth and then we can filter out excessive light and Energy from the sun, selectively maintaining our atmospheric composition to the desired scale effectively negating climate change.

    • James LeDuke
      James LeDuke 17 days ago

      That's not how dyson spheres work. First of all, the rigid shell everyone thinks of as a dyson sphere is impractical, and not what was proposed. The original concept, now called a dyson swarm, is billions of solar satellites around a star. Second, you don't build them around planets, you build them, as I said, around stars.

  • Dylan Flinton
    Dylan Flinton 20 days ago

    So, at what point do we start planet hopping???

  • DavidFMayerPhD
    DavidFMayerPhD 21 day ago

    There are phenomena that counteract the increase of brightness of the Sun.
    1. As Sun loses mass due to radiation and expulsion of solar wind, solar gravity decreases, and Earth's orbital diameter increases. More distance, lower light intensity. This effect is small, but, when things are precariously balanced, even small effects count.
    2. Sunlight exerts light pressure upon the Earth, moving its orbit outward. This effect is also small.
    3. Solar wind ALSO exerts outward pressure on the Earth to a degree much larger than the first two items above. At first glance, this should not be so. In fact, solar wind has about the same effect as light pressure, but that leaves out something very important: The cross section of the Earth relative to solar wind is MUCH LARGER than the direct physical cross section due to the Earth's magnetic field. The magnetosphere has a radius of 65,000 kilometers, approximately TEN TIMES the Earth's radius of 6,356 kilometers. This makes the overall cross section 10*10 = 100 times as large as it would be without Earth's magnetic field. This is NOT SMALL. Over the lifetime of the Earth, I estimate that the Earth's orbital radius has expanded by circa 5% to 7%. It is very hard to give a good estimate of this increase in radius since it depends upon the historical values of the solar wind intensity combined with the historical intensity of the Earth's magnetic field, both of which are fairly crudely known. Still, a 5% increase in orbital radius would mean roughly a 10% to 15% decrease in solar heat received by the Earth from the Sun. The increase in orbital radius counteracts the increasing output of the Sun. So astronomical phenomena conspire to extend Earth's residence in the Habitable Zone.

  • François Gagnon Lemieux

    Did you guys pay attention to his t-shirt? It's perfectly suited to the video and perhaps tell us the presentator like video games.

  • Caelin Bruce
    Caelin Bruce 21 day ago

    If we abandon the promised land, rest assured that God will spitball asteroids at us through an infinetely massive straw.

  • Pan Darius Kairos
    Pan Darius Kairos 23 days ago

    Only if we remain organic.

  • Mr. Jack
    Mr. Jack 24 days ago

    So, who on this site, or anyone with a brain, still believes HUMANS are the cause of the the earth's warming?????(Raise your hand)

    • Mr. Jack
      Mr. Jack 17 days ago

      so humans are the cause of the suns increased brightness? OK, I can agree with that. you are right!

    • James LeDuke
      James LeDuke 17 days ago +1

      *Raises hand*
      Anyone with a brain DOES believe that humans are the cause of climate change. The sun's increase in brightness happens to slowly for it to be a cause.

  • Damien
    Damien 24 days ago +1

    This is a problem that time can mitigate easily. If we are on the cusp of being able to terraform Mars, they can right now create rain forests in deserts, I'm sure by the time any of these potentialities happen, we will have advanced enough technologically to keep our species going...
    Assuming we don't wipe ourselves out prior to then...

  • Gonzalo Calvo
    Gonzalo Calvo 26 days ago

    More alarmism for the ecofascist propaganda of anthropogenic global warming, or mere opportunism?

    • James LeDuke
      James LeDuke 17 days ago +1

      You have no idea what you're talking about, do you?

  • Sam M
    Sam M 28 days ago +1

    If we are still around a million years from now I suspect we will simply gradually change the orbit of Earth to compensate.

  • Joshua Minnich
    Joshua Minnich 29 days ago

    low co2 causes trees to die, but trees dying causes more co2 so this would keep trees around for longer

  • ClubLulu
    ClubLulu Month ago

    Call Spaceforce.

  • June Blankenship
    June Blankenship Month ago

    Don't forget there will also be a few hundred million years when the moons of Jupiter and Saturn where water is abundant will be in the habitable zone

  • Joshua Wise
    Joshua Wise Month ago +1

    I think it's a bit bold to assume all life is doomed. As they said in Jurassic Park, "Life finds a way."

  • Midipara
    Midipara Month ago

    It doesnt make sense how the sun gets hotter and brighter when it has less energy .. is it all gravity related

  • road to millions
    road to millions Month ago

    Will mars become habitable when this shifts

  • Starlancer98
    Starlancer98 Month ago

    Clouds of nanomachines with tiny solar panels to absorb all that solar energy. Idk how you could collect the energy from the nanomachines tho

  • BCORBAN7884
    BCORBAN7884 Month ago

    All these videos are on subjects that I'm very interested in but I just cant follow this guy. I dont know if it's his voice or the way he presents the information or both but this guy ruins it for me. He sounds like he is eating right into the microphone. Please find a new host.

  • Eduardo HowCome Damiano Franco

    Is it possible to move entire Earth to further orbit with Godzilla rockets ???

    • James LeDuke
      James LeDuke 17 days ago

      In theory? Sure. There's better ways to do it, though.

  • Devin E
    Devin E Month ago

    Isn’t our galaxy supposed to collide with another one as well? i think everyone is just scared of the inevitable. And ya I would hope 700 million years from now even mars should be old news.

  • Devin E
    Devin E Month ago

    Well Mars is looking better and better

  • Jim Harris
    Jim Harris Month ago

    Based on the time scale, I think we'd have a relatively 'easier' process to send asteroids in a heliocentric orbit to slowly pull Earth away from the Sun. We might even be able to set up a dual-planet system with Mars with the right gravity-jutsu. The Asteroid Belt would be the tricky limit... unless we could mine/clear enough of it away or send it into Jupiter, which would be the next problem to solve...

  • Jolez _
    Jolez _ Month ago +1

    we need to build a wall

  • 賜龍怜音
    賜龍怜音 Month ago +2

    “Don’t let the door smack you in the flagellum on your way out...”
    Nice one

  • The Green Dragonzord
    The Green Dragonzord Month ago +1

    Where can I get that shirt?

  • Ravi Yadav
    Ravi Yadav Month ago

    I think you should have had a more accurate photo of earth when it was outside of the habitable zone. Pangea like?

  • PIE C
    PIE C 2 months ago

    If this species services and become a type two civilization....moving this ball of dirt will be childs play. Now lets figure out a way so we do not kill ourselves off!

  • Steve Lenores
    Steve Lenores 2 months ago

    Human extinction is coming. Not soon. Be happy, don't worry. Remember we have only a few decades apiece. Puts things in perspective to know Earth will expire, but so will the universe itself.

  • Vic Lagina
    Vic Lagina 2 months ago +2

    We will be long extinct dude so dont worry about it.

  • ckom0007
    ckom0007 2 months ago

    Give Elon Musk a couple hundred trillion dollars to tell his engineers to build a stellar sized cosmic tennis racquet to backhand the Earth into another star’s “Goldilocks Zone.” Done and done!

  • Leomerya12
    Leomerya12 2 months ago

    That shirt is WICKED.

  • brytsyd11
    brytsyd11 2 months ago +2

    Humans will find a way. Just almost a century ago nobody believed that man will ever fly. Fast forward today.. Just think if all the breakthroughs mankind will achieve in just under a millennium. That's if we dont destroy ourselves first.

  • Moonwired
    Moonwired 2 months ago

    Wasn’t it proven that the earth was frozen solid several times in the past

    • Hm Grraarrpffrzz
      Hm Grraarrpffrzz Month ago

      It was never entirely frozen. It was just colder than now.

  • Greek Freak
    Greek Freak 2 months ago +1

    Can't we feed the sun? ._.

    • James LeDuke
      James LeDuke 17 days ago

      @Drax the Warlock Titan Actually, you could feed it. Because the sun isn't fully convective, there's a lot of hydrogen that will never get fused. If you can push it down towards the core, you could vastly extend its life. That's part of why red dwarfs live so long. They fuse all of their hydrogen.

    • Drax the Warlock Titan
      Drax the Warlock Titan Month ago

      Eduardo HowCome Damiano Franco giant rockets would be a feasible way to move the Earth, it would take tremendous amounts of fuel but we would be mining the asteroid belt by that point. We could extend the life span of our habitable zone by pushing the Earth to meet the new requirements but it’s still just buying extra time. We could get a few extra million years by turning Jupiter into a small star and in the process get a couple of extra habitable moons with oceans. And hopefully by the end of Jupiter’s stellar cycle we could have the tech to travel to other stars.

    • Eduardo HowCome Damiano Franco
      Eduardo HowCome Damiano Franco Month ago

      @Drax the Warlock Titan. How about building Godzilla rockets and push Earth to a resume with it's new orbit ?

    • Drax the Warlock Titan
      Drax the Warlock Titan 2 months ago +1

      Greek Freak short answer, no. We don’t have enough gasses in the solar system to keep it going for long even if we started feeding it Jupiter and Saturn and the other gas giants. Even if we could move that much material anyway then why wouldn’t we just move ourselves to a more habitable planet? The tech it would require just to move massive amounts of gas around our own system would be more efficient to move us instead.

  • Carl Bailey
    Carl Bailey 2 months ago

    Prokaryotes: God to you mortals...

  • Night Fox
    Night Fox 2 months ago +1

    If we were able to build an atmosphere for mars wouldnt the greenhouse effect caused by the c02 heat up the planet? Would it be enough to make it habitable? (albeit cold)

  • luminositymusic BrianPRickard

    Is advertising in the Bible?

  • GuerrillaRadio
    GuerrillaRadio 2 months ago

    Wandering Earth Project.....great movie, and may be necessary. (plus badass)

  • Ace
    Ace 2 months ago +1

    We've a;ready seen what will happen to Earth in a billion years. Venus.

  • akamouse100
    akamouse100 2 months ago +2

    The earth is not going anywhere idiots and it will be here forever.

    • Hm Grraarrpffrzz
      Hm Grraarrpffrzz 17 days ago

      @akamouse100 _""Time" disagrees with that statement"_
      1) Time is a construct, not a physical object.
      2) Time is the order in which events happen. If all mass and energy will ever be perfectly distributed in the universe, there will be no more reactions, no more events, and as such no more time.

    • James LeDuke
      James LeDuke 17 days ago

      Unless we can move the planet, which is actually doable, Earth is going to get roasted by the sun in a few billion years.

    • Hm Grraarrpffrzz
      Hm Grraarrpffrzz Month ago

      @akamouse100 _""Time" disagrees with that statement"_
      Well, time describes the order in which events happen. If all matter and energy in the universe would be ever perfectly distributed, then there'd be no events anymore and thus also no time.

    • akamouse100
      akamouse100 Month ago

      @Hm Grraarrpffrzz "Time" disagrees with that statement

    • Eduardo HowCome Damiano Franco
      Eduardo HowCome Damiano Franco Month ago

      Elvis don't listen too them 🤗☹️HmGrraarr

  • Tubmaster 5000
    Tubmaster 5000 2 months ago

    Humans will be long extinct before any of this happens.