Video Games Cause Aggression?

  • Опубликовано:  6 месяцев назад
  • This video was sponsored by Best Fiends

    Click here to download Best Fiends for FREE:

    Welcome to the first edition of Psych News, where we announce new discoveries in the world of Psychology and human behavior. Todays stories include:

    0:10 The effects of video games on aggression

    Ever since the rise of violent media in TV, movies, and now video games, their effects on kids and society have been hotly debated. A number of studies have concluded that the effects of video games on individuals are generally negative. Generally people who play violent video games show an increase in aggression and a decrease in empathy. Though video game effects seem to be largely negative, a current study decided to further expand on the findings. Previous work done on the social effect of video games have been examined from a short term perspective. This new study examined video game effects in the long run and concluded there may be good effects of video games.

    2:44 New watch tells you if you're a boring conversationalist

    Scientists have finally developed a watch that can determine a conversations tone. Using audio, text transcriptions, and physiological signs this watch can determine a conversations tone with 83% accuracy. Researchers say this is most helpful for those with anxiety or aspergers because it acts like a social coach.

    Voice Over by Donna (Psych IRL):

    Animation by: Emma Schrederis

    More Psych2Go here:
  • ОбразованиеОбразование
  • Длительность: 3:49
  • Psych2Go  Best Fiends  best mobile game  Candy Crush  what's on my iphone  phone games  video games agression  video games violence  

Комментарии: 456

  • Chase Braley
    Chase Braley 21 час назад

    it's only the parents.

  • Lukas Nilsson
    Lukas Nilsson 2 дня назад

    I've played games for along time and i have become less angry, it has been my own space where i can do anything i wan't and that just makes me happier!

  • Planet Venus
    Planet Venus 6 дней назад

    I am only aggressive during aggressive games and shortly after. Then I’m normal again.

  • Branwen Davies
    Branwen Davies 8 дней назад

    Video games help me to forget about worries and I lik e being away from reality sometimes because it scan get really stressful sometimes

  • PaperStreetSoapCompany Productions
    PaperStreetSoapCompany Productions 12 дней назад +1

    You ever put a block in the wrong spot in Tetris?

    It'll make anyone a homicidal maniac....

  • gabe ferrer
    gabe ferrer 17 дней назад

    People are wayyyy mixed upon this topic. They think games such as CoD and Mortal Kombat at cause violence, when in actuality Mario Party does.

  • Xenovista
    Xenovista 19 дней назад

    Hitler must have been a fan of COD. ........OH WAIT!

    Humanity is an aggressive, cut-throat, depraved species of self serving bastards. Violent media is a means to channel that inner cave man in a safe way so everyone can get along....mostly.

  • Bryn James
    Bryn James 25 дней назад +1

    I am twenty and seventeen of them were spent playing Legend of Zelda, American Macgee's Alice, Super Mario, GTA, Fallout, Alan Wake, Uncharted, Borderlands, NieR series.... _slowly drifts into a long list of every Zelda title_ I have no kind of aggression. I'm a walking potato with salt and a bunch of inside jokes.

  • TheIronIcecream
    TheIronIcecream 28 дней назад

    shit i just played minecraft. Well guys i guess i am obligated to shoot up the school

  • Viscochu2009 | Nesrin
    Viscochu2009 | Nesrin Месяц назад

    I always play Samurai warriors 4 or Orochi Warriors 3 Ultimate whenever I'm sad, angry or just want to sleep but can't. It really helps to calm me down. I don't think Video games cause aggression BUT it can cause it when its played at the wrong age.

  • Daniel100Benner
    Daniel100Benner Месяц назад

    People blame these types of video games on school and workplace shootings, I think it's total crap.

  • The Division
    The Division 2 месяца назад

    My parents say video games make me more violent, but they make me get off in the middle of a competitive match of overwatch or csgo, its guys know you'd be pissed off too, they just catch me at the wrong times, if im not in a match, its whatever, if its casual, whatever, if its comp, im actually trying and if i lose a lot of rank+penalty cause parents make me get off...

  • Angel Reyes
    Angel Reyes 2 месяца назад

    any type of frustration causes violence

  • Peanut Gallery Seth
    Peanut Gallery Seth 2 месяца назад

    Hmmmm... I'd have to say no, they don't cause aggression and/or anger. Because while we do pick up things from the media we consume, we aren't always directly affected by it. Most of the articles that I've read about people attacking others and/or killing others because of films/games/etc. were people who weren't quite stable from the beginning.
    In fact, violent videogames help us reduce and express our anger and anxieties in ways we couldn't do in real life. I remember playing GTAV and being very angry about something before I started playing. I went on a killing spree, laughed at silly deaths and my anger was forgotten. It helps a lot for people who are introverts actually, as introverts tend to bubble up their emotions and not show them to anyone. Seeing how most gamers are introverts or at least ambiverts.
    Violent videogames affect people in different ways because we are all different and don't have the same responses as others. So, while I believe they do not cause aggression, there are aspects that say otherwise. It's kind of hard to completely analyse.

  • Kaylie Brown
    Kaylie Brown 2 месяца назад

    Video Games can cause violent aggression, but that's only in those 9 year olds who like to be their favorite characters by punching people in the face.

  • Xpert_Destroyer 4
    Xpert_Destroyer 4 2 месяца назад

    Lol i might have aspergers and social anxity lol ☹️

  • Domesticumbreon
    Domesticumbreon 2 месяца назад

    Does best fiends cause violence?

  • sipystroki jay
    sipystroki jay 2 месяца назад

    ive found that my lack of sympathy is caused by the news.... thats what i found out about myself so it doesnt have to do with anybody else but i may be on to something

  • Aaron Henderson
    Aaron Henderson 3 месяца назад

    Fucking pouncers make me want to kill maybe video games can make you violent lol

    MOWDR 3 месяца назад

    It's not the actual game that gets me mad, it's the lag in the game which can be caused by other using the internet. So....My family causes me to get aggressive.😐

  • I Don't Like Drowning
    I Don't Like Drowning 3 месяца назад

    And who doesn't like bunnies?

  • TheRealMichelozzo
    TheRealMichelozzo 3 месяца назад

    I'd love to see if video games that aren't violent and/or competitive cause an increase in empathy with a decrease in aggression, really test that 'in the moment' response these tests seemed to show.

  • ToxiBeingEmo
    ToxiBeingEmo 3 месяца назад

    I'd like to see them do a before and after test. Because maybe even before playing video games the person already happened to be aggressive and stuff.

  • BubbleGumSims
    BubbleGumSims 3 месяца назад

    the switch was at 2:12 of the video 😄

  • Amber Plays
    Amber Plays 3 месяца назад


  • ๖ۣۜSixer
    ๖ۣۜSixer 4 месяца назад

    The only bad thing a violent video does is make more edgy kids.

  • Twig Touch
    Twig Touch 4 месяца назад

    when u about to come to then realize ur comment number 421 instead of 420

  • Four Waluigis of Dawn
    Four Waluigis of Dawn 4 месяца назад

    Me: *plays game that was banned in certain countries because it's too violent
    Also me: *freaks out at the mere sight of a spider

  • Reno Strife
    Reno Strife 4 месяца назад

    Well usually I get pretty pissed but it passes as soon as I stop playing soooo...

  • hunter master race
    hunter master race 4 месяца назад

    lag ruins my day

  • Max Robert
    Max Robert 5 месяцев назад

    If video games make you violent, read a book. 😐

  • James Sawley
    James Sawley 5 месяцев назад +1

    1:06, $5 irl gold and diamonds would me like a diamond shaving.

  • Oldman EstimanJr.
    Oldman EstimanJr. 5 месяцев назад +2

    lag can cause agreesion? pshhhh, you havent heard of the word


  • Aisha Byrd
    Aisha Byrd 5 месяцев назад

    This isn't biased at all.

  • Bluemoonwolf 64
    Bluemoonwolf 64 5 месяцев назад

    That first notifications someone gets when they just subscribed

  • Bloo
    Bloo 5 месяцев назад

    i play ''violent videogames'' 24/7 and i get sad when i kill a bug
    except mosquitos, those fuckers can burn in-

    wait wut

  • Decarus37
    Decarus37 5 месяцев назад

    i did a research paper for class and i found so much damn stuff that says video games cause aggression on some levels but not flat out violence which makes sense as one will get angry during a boss fight but you get just as angry if your baby refuses to stop crying... you're not going to beat the baby now are you?

  • Shailene Hawthorn
    Shailene Hawthorn 5 месяцев назад +4

    It's ironic how this video is sponsored by a video game.

  • Ruben Sandwich
    Ruben Sandwich 5 месяцев назад +1

    Videogames make me somewhat angry depending on the stakes. So it's the stakes

  • Ackakesu C.P
    Ackakesu C.P 5 месяцев назад

    Most video games make me calmer and less stressed so maybe it dependents on the person and the game.

    • zachary odell
      zachary odell 4 месяца назад

      Exactly. Things like Fallout and other single player titles calm me down most often, but fast paced multiplayers always make me angry.

  • Kaitlyn Morgan
    Kaitlyn Morgan 5 месяцев назад

    Lag, glitches, hackers, and failing every time at that one level causes aggression.

  • Laconian Drakon
    Laconian Drakon 5 месяцев назад +2

    Idk about anyone else but videogames help me submerge into an evironment were i can freely let go of my anger (being an introvert). A place were i can kill as many players as i want, to then be the most calm sheep you will have ever known outside of them.

  • Ricebauer
    Ricebauer 6 месяцев назад

    As long as im not playing competetive i wont be aggressive... but those boosted monkeys in Solo Queue...

  • Beriadan Gigas
    Beriadan Gigas 6 месяцев назад

    I think the main fear when it came to videogames causing violence came from the Columbine shootings.

  • Austin Quinn
    Austin Quinn 6 месяцев назад

    if I play too much Melee I start to waveshine people

  • Ashly Bates
    Ashly Bates 6 месяцев назад

    I think is it causes less agression, Because it can be a safe outlet for pinned up emotions, I feel like is more theraputic

  • Tambry 0152
    Tambry 0152 6 месяцев назад +2

    Video games don't kill people, people kill people.

    Seriously through, violent people always existed, long before fricking Pong was a thing. Hitler, anybody?

  • Kyle Asbury
    Kyle Asbury 6 месяцев назад

    I've played video games my entire life and i'm not aggressive in the least lol

  • Marshmell0w
    Marshmell0w 6 месяцев назад

    video starts at 1:12

  • Balling Like I'm Tobe
    Balling Like I'm Tobe 6 месяцев назад

    I get absolutely pissed playing 2k17 when people blow leads and don't pass the ball.

  • Christian Graulau
    Christian Graulau 6 месяцев назад

    2:11 - It's literally a Switch wtf???

    • Christian Graulau
      Christian Graulau 6 месяцев назад

      Oh nvm it makes sense this is from 2017 not 2016

  • Queen Pepperoni
    Queen Pepperoni 6 месяцев назад

    Before my brother got his x box he was calm and cool now he's got it he's really angry, so my mum took it off him lmoa he got really upset. But after it got taken away he got a little better.

  • Katie Oz
    Katie Oz 6 месяцев назад

    I am a gamer myself, and I constantly play COD and Battlefield. But, I couldn't say my empathy levels have dropped. Because they haven't and neither has my aggression level increased.

  • EariosRandomness
    EariosRandomness 6 месяцев назад

    I spend a lot of time playing games, and a lot of the ones I play have violence in them. According to the older studies, I should be a psychotic madman going around murdering people. Despite this, many people who know me would describe me as one of the calmest people they know.

  • Overflow
    Overflow 6 месяцев назад

    recently playing cs:go, and too afraid to kill someone.

  • Lance Peter
    Lance Peter 6 месяцев назад

    But when i play Chivalry: Medieval Warfare and lop off limbs with blood all over your clothes till your own blue teammates think you're the red team, i don't feel like being aggressive and unemphatic.

  • Latoya Wright
    Latoya Wright 6 месяцев назад

    I play violent games yet I'm a customer service rep. I have been a gamer all my life (Since the birth of Nintendo) Lol. Don't believe the hype guys... these stupid religious ppl are just trying to find a scapegoat for they're child's bad behavior besides they're own bad parenting.

  • Knight Owl
    Knight Owl 6 месяцев назад

    I don't need video games to get my aggression worked up. All I need for that is to go outside where there are other people.

  • scattered senpai
    scattered senpai 6 месяцев назад

    Plz go back to being calm

  • Riley Peterson
    Riley Peterson 6 месяцев назад

    ew. mobile games.

  • Trinity Andrew
    Trinity Andrew 6 месяцев назад

    basically any game or app can be addictive like Subway Surfers they should be actually looking for a high school kids depending on who they are and how they act in school can make a big difference on how they will react to certain games

  • Marjolaine Ménard
    Marjolaine Ménard 6 месяцев назад

    my boyfriend always played and is the most peaceful person in the whole world!

  • Liokardo
    Liokardo 6 месяцев назад

    Anything frustrating causes aggresion, pretty simple.

  • Spartan 117
    Spartan 117 6 месяцев назад

    No but lag and hackers do

  • TheRoyaleKnight
    TheRoyaleKnight 6 месяцев назад

    i play assassin's Creed he I don't go around gutting people and smashing their faces in with warhammers

  • Mallotree
    Mallotree 6 месяцев назад

    Lol I think the watch would be pretty funny

  • Chronomatrix
    Chronomatrix 6 месяцев назад

    I have to say, I always have a little game session before school. No violent games, too.

  • Burningtitan
    Burningtitan 6 месяцев назад

    Short answer. My brother plays doom. He is the most harmless guy I know and will stop arguments before they escalate

  • SeKToR
    SeKToR 6 месяцев назад +2

    Nothing like the adrenaline rush of a good match. Too bad few get that experience.

    • thegalaxy2012
      thegalaxy2012 6 месяцев назад

      Too bad it's only easy to get good adrenaline rushes when your teams are equally matched, which is something I haven't seen in quite a while

  • jacie williams
    jacie williams 6 месяцев назад

    For quite a few kids I know (plus myself) we are more violent when we don't play violent games. In violent games we take out all our anger on the things/characters/etc. in the game and less of that anger on other people/things.

  • Gamer Sisters
    Gamer Sisters 6 месяцев назад

    i think the only way for it to actually make you more violent is if you played violent games as a kid! of course, that would involuntarily teach you some more violent behavior cuz kids are like sponges. but that goes for any exposure of violence, not just VGs.

  • Minnah4 AJ
    Minnah4 AJ 6 месяцев назад

    I think they do.
    Wen you loose at a video game repeatedly, maybe cause the power went out, or it was laggy, you become more aggressive. if you KEEP playing the same game and continue to loose, you might become more aggressive to real life situations. one time, i was on my tablet, and was winning my game, when suddenly, the wifi went off. i tried fixing it, and eventually smashed my tablet against the wall because it wouldn't cooperate. this has happened to me more then once, and it can carry into real life, when something doesn't go your way, it becomes a habit to have aggression towards the situation, then figure it out rationally when it doesn't work out the way you want to.
    That is what I think.

  • Yihao Wong
    Yihao Wong 6 месяцев назад +1

    Well, I have an answer as to why I'm raging so much at Geometry Dash.

  • Regeneration
    Regeneration 6 месяцев назад

    You talk shit about VGames i dont want to hear? I gona kill ya with a knife in the kne #/pol/

  • Preidon
    Preidon 6 месяцев назад

    Of course they do,anyone who is addicted and plays them every day is a weak weak person

  • K.G. Drake
    K.G. Drake 6 месяцев назад

    I've always joked after blasting away a bunch of zombies/ monsters/ enemies/ etc, that I feel less like hurting others. Seriously, I do feel less tense after a game, but can still feel anxious when seeing real life stuff. There are times I even have to switch the channel from CNN to something else, just to avoid getting jittery.

  • Lyssia Ribeiro
    Lyssia Ribeiro 6 месяцев назад +1

    it's kinda funny, because I'm literally one of the most pacific person I know (like, I can't even do "violent" sports, I can't bring myself to hit someone even tho I know it's technically ok to do so) and I'm really emotional, but I love violent games.
    Everytime someone says violent games makes people more agressive I think it's funny and want to laugh, because it literally sounds like a joke.
    The people who usually say that kinda stuff also ignore that most violent games have consequences to your actions in some level. Aaand forget that people said the same thing about TV or that in the Middle Age there was no video games and, I mean, that was a seriously violent period.

  • Cora
    Cora 6 месяцев назад +3

    I am a bit of a gamer but my brother practically lives of youtube and games, I also think because when you're playing video games that aren't like problem solving games you don't think you just play. My brother literally gets angry adn screams and cries over the smallest things, and I think it's because he hasn't had chances to think about things. Which stops him from maturing and realising how pathetic it is for him to be doing what he does. My whole family knows that video games are the causes, this is because he is a naturally kind and out-going kid, but after being told to get off video games he becomes extremly aggressive but when he has been banned for a week he starts to go back to his helpful nature. Also with a family friend his age was suddenly being over the top aggressive and I asked why and his sister replied with, "he's been playing video games all week".

    • Alejandro Jr Mendoza
      Alejandro Jr Mendoza 26 дней назад

      Cora As a competive gamer,Who plays street fighter 5 and smash 4.If you cry or scream while playing.Your a loser.A big one at that.But hey at lease we didn't cause a war (when soccer fans)

    • Lyssia Ribeiro
      Lyssia Ribeiro 6 месяцев назад +3

      I don't know the full story or anything, but for what you said it sounds like your brother is addicted to video games, tbh.
      It's not because the games are violents or anything, people can get addicted to literally anything. And it's a lot easier if it is something as emersive and rewarding as a game.
      You probably would get a better response from him if you suggested therapy because you heard it's good for everyone, or get him to go to a therapy with you. Most addiction are a scapism, after all.
      But, I mean, it's just me saying that and I don't know him or you or the entire story, so don't take this coment too serious.

  • Fastblujay
    Fastblujay 6 месяцев назад

    More people. Need to know this.

  • Appocalypse
    Appocalypse 6 месяцев назад

    I enjoy your videos, but the background music kinda ruins it for me. I hope you consider making videos with no constant background music!

  • Tripper420 Gamebangboii
    Tripper420 Gamebangboii 6 месяцев назад

    She didn't really say not give enough info...

  • Alex Johns
    Alex Johns 6 месяцев назад +1

    people in the past said books had negative effects. here we are now and people say videogames have negative effects. if you ask me this whole argument is bs

  • YamiGekusu
    YamiGekusu 6 месяцев назад +6

    Two words- Mario Party

  • Leafa 0910
    Leafa 0910 6 месяцев назад

    Am I the only one here who thinks that the new opening sounds like someone whipping a person's ass before stabbing and jabbing them to death with a knife?

  • Marleen S
    Marleen S 6 месяцев назад

    Depends on who you ask.
    My brother can get pretty aggressive.
    I just quit the game :/

  • Swiggity Swooty
    Swiggity Swooty 6 месяцев назад

    Sort of hard to believe you are unbiased when you have your video sponsored by A VIDEO GAME.

  • Ally Rose
    Ally Rose 6 месяцев назад +7

    Omg why is best fiends sponsoring EVERY YouTube channel, it's a rubbish game anyways

    • PotatoAndAHalfFilms
      PotatoAndAHalfFilms 6 месяцев назад +4

      that's exactly why they're sponsoring videos, their game is trash

  • Lihly
    Lihly 6 месяцев назад +1

    for me, gaming actually lets me get out my aggression instead of letting it out in real life (ANGRY JITTERCLICKS)

    so when I don't play for ages I can get a little cranky... people say it's withdrawal symptoms (aka I'm addicted) but it's just that I haven't let out my anger yet! 😅

    My game isn't 'agressive' yet the community is disgusting and eXTREMELY toxic (like extremely extremely - worryingly)

    I don't think many non-gamers get that gamers sometimes go online just to let off some real world steam instead of doing it in real life...

    • Lihly
      Lihly 6 месяцев назад

      That could be said for anything, not just videogames.

      For people with mental illness'/personality disorders it can act as therapy: videogames have actually helped me get away from a lot of issues I've suffered from in the past and it acted as a good thing, not making me any more aggressive at all and in fact doing the opposite.

    • Lyssia Ribeiro
      Lyssia Ribeiro 6 месяцев назад

      But if someone IS violent naturally, it's not about the game, it's about them, and it will get worse anyway if they don't get help.
      It's unfair blaming the games for something like that.
      I mean, there's a LOT of violence in TV, in books, in series, in sports, in anime, in movies, even in cartoons.
      Someone who tends to escalete don't "need" games to get worse.

    • Negan Winchester
      Negan Winchester 6 месяцев назад

      I don't know, if you deal with your violence thirst by going serial killer in a videogame, how long until that is not enough? And I'm not talking about your average joe (that's other topic altogether), I'm referring to people with real mental illness/personality disorder.

      Violence always tends to escalate, so there must be a healthier alternative.

    • Lyssia Ribeiro
      Lyssia Ribeiro 6 месяцев назад

      I think if it's not okay to do so in video games then it's not fine to do it anywhere, and tbh most people do it in like, sports, art and games. I think it's natural, tbh. And more health than wanting to punch people in clubs.

    • Lihly
      Lihly 6 месяцев назад

      I believe its fine... it's better to do so online than in real life (the harm it causes-cyberbullying excluded. imo cyberbullying doesn't really exist if you don't know the person irl- just turn off your computer lol. I say this as a 'victim' of 'cyberbullying' online)

  • Bongo Johnson
    Bongo Johnson 6 месяцев назад +2

    Like you said, anything taxing or frustrating can cause an increase i aggression, not just video games.

    But to further the points made, take Columbine for example, a championed case against violence in video games. After the tragedy at Columbine, the media lambasted violent media such as Grand Theft Auto, and other games these kids were known to play, but ultimately failed to mention these kids home, and social life. These kids were not happy at home, or school. If memory serves, then one kid had parents who were verbally abusive, and the other had authoritarian parents, and both of them were bullied at school. This constant stress may have been a much stronger catalyst to their choices than GTA, but does that mean GTA had nothing to do with it? I do not honestly think so. Violent Video games in the hands of already broken people may have adverse affects on their psychological state. The consistent strain and upset in these boys lives, intermixed with violent media, may have driven them to their violent decisions.

  • Twoheaded Head
    Twoheaded Head 6 месяцев назад +14

    my mom always says video games and mobile phone make me angry, but what really makes me angry is her saying that that makes me angry

    • Antihater135
      Antihater135 5 месяцев назад +2

      Twoheaded Head I've been there and it is one of the most absurd arguments out there. I still don't get why in the world so many adults hate video games; they are an awsome stress remover and quite a few of them have compelling stories. If anything, I play because I'm angry. There is nothing in the real world that can make me feel better.

    • thegalaxy2012
      thegalaxy2012 6 месяцев назад +2

      Same. My parents are always saying how computers and gaming consoles are bad, even requiring me to compare the bible to violence (Which they immediately reject), or simple board games to violence. Video games are more for releasing stress and having a place to actually exert anger that you can't normally show to most of society because standards.

  • Clara Marques
    Clara Marques 6 месяцев назад +14

    i used to kill peaple with the car in GTA wen i was little, and today i get sad wen i kill a bug.

    • Clara Marques
      Clara Marques 4 месяца назад

      +Utley idem xjsnsshdbd

    • Utley
      Utley 4 месяца назад

      when i get angry i go play gta and drive on the sidewalk

  • Mercury Frazier
    Mercury Frazier 6 месяцев назад +2

    Crap ads in videos make me rage.

  • Aditya
    Aditya 6 месяцев назад

    i say kys and i wanna die all the time that im so light with those words

  • Sita van Waarde
    Sita van Waarde 6 месяцев назад

    I played battelfied alot Its a shooter ,.. i made me creatief in killing people in the game ,.. but in real live
    If you Harm somebody ,. People hunt you down and you lose a lot , your freedom and so
    If i have nothing to lose and i have anger in me i wold likely to kill somebody

  • Serina chan
    Serina chan 6 месяцев назад

    no not really i play aggresion video games to but i never acsually tell peaple that not just roblox
    but the lagging cuz the aggresion really..

  • Nattsmaragd Niklasson
    Nattsmaragd Niklasson 6 месяцев назад +1

    This is basically a 3 minute video with a 1 minute ad before the actual video.

  • muki muki
    muki muki 6 месяцев назад +1

    LMAO, I always got angry while playing video games when I was a kid. But I always played games like "the sims" does this make me weird?

    • Lyssia Ribeiro
      Lyssia Ribeiro 6 месяцев назад

      I mean, the Sims is stressful as heck

  • Ashwati Khanduri
    Ashwati Khanduri 6 месяцев назад +2

    i think violent games just increase tolerance for graphic imagery. As in, if i saw a dead person, i would be very disturbed, but wont throw up or freak out completely. But that doesnt mean i feel any lesser, i just know how to remain calm and handle the situation easier.

  • tharusha fernando
    tharusha fernando 6 месяцев назад

    I don't like bunnies.