What really happened to the Library of Alexandria? - Elizabeth Cox

  • Опубликовано: 14 авг 2018
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    View full lesson: ed.ted.com/lessons/what-really-happened-to-the-library-of-alexandria-elizabeth-cox
    2,300 years ago, the rulers of Alexandria set out to fulfill a very audacious goal: to collect all the knowledge in the world under one roof. In its prime, the Library of Alexandria housed an unprecedented number of scrolls and attracted some of the Greek world’s greatest minds. But by the end of the 5th century CE, it had vanished. Elizabeth Cox details the rise and fall of this great building.
    Lesson by Elizabeth Cox, directed by Inna Phillimore.
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Комментарии • 1 225

  • TED-Ed
    TED-Ed  Месяц назад +126

    What do you know about history's most mysterious book? Find out more here: bit.ly/2BcostO

    • mutleyshotta
      mutleyshotta 10 дней назад

      Stolen african knowledge. Greeks were students. Africans were the teachers...alexander the greek not great...

    • Meredith Wilson
      Meredith Wilson Месяц назад +1

      The library of alexandria never existed

    • NatiHighLife
      NatiHighLife Месяц назад +1

      The accounts of al-Qifti and Bar-Hebraeus are more detailed. They state that "John the Grammarian" asked Amr to spare the library, and Amr contacted the caliph Umar for authorization. Umar replied that if the books agreed with the Quran they were redundant, and if they did not, then they were forbidden. Amr handed the books over to Alexandria's heated bath houses, where they were burned as fuel for six months.

  • Crick1952
    Crick1952 3 дня назад

    Do not fear the burning of books as much as the growing number who cease to read them.

  • AbsolX Guardian
    AbsolX Guardian 4 дня назад

    This theory is a lot sadder than the library being burned, as it was the slow descendent because of leaders' fear of knowledge. The destruction of the library was a great tragedy for human progress, setting us back centuries, and much of that knowledge may still be lost, or even gone forever. There is poetic irony to it being human dogma and fear that destroyed it, rather than an accident during the war that raged around it.

  • batman39400
    batman39400 5 дней назад

    1:18 but did it have LAMBORGHINIs

  • Clueless Boxing
    Clueless Boxing 7 дней назад

    Skip a lot on the timeline there

  • Isabela Diniz
    Isabela Diniz 7 дней назад

    And do you know what else catched on fire? Brazil's National Museum, last week. It's so painful to think about it...

  • Rayaan Adamson
    Rayaan Adamson 7 дней назад

    The House of Wisdom (Bayt al-Hikmah)
    The Library of Rhodes
    The Library of Alexandria
    All gone! I grieve in pain!

  • Iki Rosman
    Iki Rosman 8 дней назад

    Someone should actually stab caesar for burning the library

  • Napster __
    Napster __ 8 дней назад

    So religion destroyed any chance of early progress...
    Tell me something new!!

  • Mai Mayer
    Mai Mayer 10 дней назад

    Is there anything in the library that was salvaged? Like there could've been text that could've been saved right? Just wondering

  • Mai Mayer
    Mai Mayer 10 дней назад

    I get sad when the library of Alexandria is mentioned....

  • Roger didit
    Roger didit 10 дней назад

    My guess is that the writings were a lot of folk wisdom, mumbo jumbo, and just basic information along with religious mumbo jumbo.

  • Salt & Pepper
    Salt & Pepper 10 дней назад +2

    The Christians destroyed it by 450 A.D. before Islam existed.
    There's no evidence Islam did anything to the library. In fact, Muslims did the opposite by copying and translating surviving books into Arabic.

    • Pan-European National Conservative
      Pan-European National Conservative 5 дней назад

      Salt & Pepper You can list as many as you like, try to have them receive popular appeal today and then I’ll be impressed because Muslim consider them heretics, and Atheism still cries a criminal sanction is most of the Muslim world.

    • Salt & Pepper
      Salt & Pepper 5 дней назад +1

      +Pan-European National Conservative
      Lol. Did they?
      Except some of the greatest ancient Arab and Persian atheists like Ibn al Rawandi existed back in the 800s in those Muslim empires. He wrote books kept in those Islamic empires that survive till today.
      Find me ONE European atheist in the 800 A.D. Certainly no one lived to debate like Ibn al Rawandi did with the Muslim scholars.
      The hypocrisy of modern anti-Muslim bigots who simultaneously praise Ibn al Rawandi for being an atheist against all religion (and standing up to Islam during the Abbassid empire) while simultaneously claiming the same empires killed all dissenters is mind boggling.
      Please use Google to find out more about Ibn al Rawandi. I can list other famous Arab atheists that lived long and free lives in Islamic empires throughout history.

    • Pan-European National Conservative
      Pan-European National Conservative 5 дней назад

      Salt & Pepper it’s true the Muslims were around in Alexandria, but not the long library.

    • Pan-European National Conservative
      Pan-European National Conservative 5 дней назад

      Salt & Pepper Again the Romans didn’t mean to destroy the library, they were at war. As for the Muslims they were already well on their way to suppressing scientific works. You might as well say the Greeks and Romans tried to save the library, because unlike the Muslims they never suppressed the knowledge of classical thought and it was the knowledge kept by the Byzantine empire that led to the renaissance in Italy.

  • MDJ
    MDJ 10 дней назад

    Alexander nor the Greeks had nothing to do with the knowledge complied in that library which is what this white washed cartoon is suggesting. In fact, his men were the ones who destroyed it and he merely named it after himself. Greek Civilization didn't reflect the knowldege in those temples residing in Africa which explain why greeks traveled their too lewarn.

  • Mohammed Shoaib
    Mohammed Shoaib 10 дней назад

    One of the greatest lies that can be told is muslims burned a library when it is compulsory to gain knowledge in Islam. When it is compulsory to gain knowledge in Islam, it implies saving of knowledge first.

  • Anushka Doshi
    Anushka Doshi 10 дней назад

    Just like library of alexandria, in India we had nalanda. It's said to be the oldest university in the world and taught wide variety of subjects ranging from mathematics to philosophy. Of course , it contained a very big library and scholars from different countries like china and far west came to study it's scrolls. It thrived for thousand years. But alas! in 12 or 13 century it was torched by muslim invaders. It's said that it burnt for12 days because of the vast amount of scrolls and books it had. Sadly, we will never know about the lost knowledge and the secrets it had.

  • Syfy Firefly
    Syfy Firefly 10 дней назад

    The library was burned multiple times, most historical sources record three different burnings. Why is there no mention of the one done by Caliph Omar here?

  • Dalia Capellan
    Dalia Capellan 10 дней назад

    Amongst so many things yet to be discovered, I wonder if enough passion ran through certain individuals, enough to make them hide some of the manuscripts before they were destroyed which are still awaiting the light of day.

  • Mitch Paul
    Mitch Paul 10 дней назад


  • Mitch Paul
    Mitch Paul 10 дней назад

    Christians fear other books...

  • Emerald Green
    Emerald Green 11 дней назад

    THE LIBRARY OF ALEXANDRIA is now the VATICAN ARCHIVES. It was not a loss, they just wanted to hoard the knowledge for themselves. It was not lost

  • Ndirangu Mwaura
    Ndirangu Mwaura 11 дней назад

    Thanks ted....the way this is presented you'd think that this library was in sweden...and not africa...u people are relentless in ur attempt to steal africas history

  • Zach Amos
    Zach Amos 11 дней назад

    The Library housed proof that the earth is flat so the Government and NASA had it burnt down.

  • Bambi
    Bambi 11 дней назад

    Fake history

  • J Lupus
    J Lupus 11 дней назад

    They should’ve made more copies. That’s like telling the world which bank holds your gold- and you have zero insurance on it.

  • Degrelle Holt
    Degrelle Holt 12 дней назад

    Putting all of one's eggs in one basket.

  • NotSoNinjaJoe
    NotSoNinjaJoe 12 дней назад

    I’m fairly certain there is a surviving quote from the Persian ruler who last held Alexandria, and I’m paraphrasing slightly, “If the contents of the library contradict our teachings they are vile and must be burned. If they support our teachings they are unnecessary and may be burned”. I may very well be wrong, I had heard the quote from a scholarly video here on RUclip but I cannot remember what it was about.
    Throughout history knowledge has been the adversary of organized religion. We lost 1000 years of advancement during the Christian Dark Ages wherein most any form of scientific thought was blasphemy.
    The Human capacity for willful ignorance and destruction is astounding. We’d rather burn down anything that challenges our worldview and beliefs than attempt to learn and grow and evolve our collective understanding of being.

  • Achilleas Labrou
    Achilleas Labrou 12 дней назад +2

    Early Christians suffered tremendously by the pagan Roman culture. It is inevitable that nearly all Christians after the establishment of Christianity hated and fought anything that it was relevant with paganism.

  • Steve Hunter
    Steve Hunter 12 дней назад +1

    It was probably destroyed by the three most intolerant and regressive religions in the world - Christianity, Judaism and Islam.

    • J R
      J R 12 дней назад

      you celebrate new year eve on the 1st of january thanks to the vatican.

  • harold anistasia
    harold anistasia 13 дней назад

    Could be in the Vatican

  • Dindu Nuffin
    Dindu Nuffin 13 дней назад

    Why is there absolutely zero mention of how the Muslims ordered the destruction of any content that contradicted mohammed? And most of the stuff was already moved to Constantinople by the Byzantine era for studying as the city was becoming the new centre for scholars.

  • Denine V. Heinemann
    Denine V. Heinemann 13 дней назад

    So Julius Caesar's orders may have burned only part of the library. Then it goes on to say the subsequent leaders were afraid of people having knowledge. But it doesn't say what did happen to the remaining library?

  • Kamal Hadeir
    Kamal Hadeir 13 дней назад +1

    Loss of the library is honestly nothing compared to the sack of Baghdad and the million books destroyed during the Reconquista.

  • Synystr7
    Synystr7 13 дней назад +2

    Monotheistic religion happened. A cancer to civilization.
    Paganism is horribly underrated.

  • Jeffrey Robinson
    Jeffrey Robinson 13 дней назад

    Why did you leave off two centuries after Hypecia the Muslim burning scrolls for nine months to heat baths, destruction based on the idea that if it repeated the Quran it was unneeded if it contradicted the Quran it was blasphemy

  • Bradley Henderson
    Bradley Henderson 13 дней назад

    It was stolen, then the building burned. How can anyone believe it was just destroyed? Learn about the world and who controls it, history of knowledge, and methods of social control if you don't know better.

  • Russell Stone
    Russell Stone 14 дней назад

    they stole the books !!!!

  • Ron Mac95
    Ron Mac95 14 дней назад

    It burnt down! My book is 3,000 years overdue now.

  • mojokiss
    mojokiss 14 дней назад

    they renamed it the vatican and locked out everyone

  • Priyansh Shukla
    Priyansh Shukla 15 дней назад

    actually it was used to transfer of Indian knowledge to greek

  • sarah June
    sarah June 15 дней назад

    Such a smart move to preserve the history. Sad for the fate of the library.

  • Kim Welch
    Kim Welch 16 дней назад

    Alexandria’s collection was Ink on Papyrus. Papyrus isn’t particularly resilient and rots very easily unless it’s in the belly of a mummy. Stone and baked clay are the most resilient, but Vellum and Iron Gall Ink lasts a very long time. Unless it is continually refreshed, the best electronic records will degrade within decades. If we hit a dark age, most of our electronic records will disappear and only the acid free paper documents stored in underground archives will survive.
    During war time would-be conquerors very often purposely target archives, libraries and museums. This happened in Sarajevo where the library and known archive locations were purposely shelled. Incidents like this are documented in Matthew Battles, “Library: An Unquiet History.”

  • Yan Pagh
    Yan Pagh 16 дней назад

    We actually do not know what to prepare for as we let the new religious zealots now under the guise of politics, slowly but surely destroy our culture and history and knowledge with their march through academia with false narrative and Gramscian gimmicks.

  • Derek Jordan
    Derek Jordan 16 дней назад

    It's in the Vatican. Where all the Ancients trolls are hitting.

  • Grizzly BƎAR
    Grizzly BƎAR 16 дней назад

    That last sentence sound like a message.

  • dude mcdude
    dude mcdude 17 дней назад

    Not entirely surprising that religion was scared of knowledge and decided to destroy it

  • Fredrik Thorsen
    Fredrik Thorsen 17 дней назад +2

    Same thing happened in Brazil a few days ago, have we learned nothing..?

    • Ivory
      Ivory 11 дней назад

      We brazilians ? No :(

  • Rev. Stephen A. Cakouros
    Rev. Stephen A. Cakouros 17 дней назад

    On being told about the Library Caliph Omar said, "They will either contradict the Koran, in which case they are heresy, or they will agree with it, so they are superfluous." In other words burn the library. This accords with Muslim practice which acts as if the world began when Mohammed [622] fled Mecca. The Persian poet Omar Khayyam [1048-1131] though brilliant knew little or nothing about Persian history because Muslims start the world with Mohammed. Muslims even set out to destroy what has existed before their takeover of a culture. Witness ISIS destroying artifacts and the like.

  • Art Mysteries Disclosed
    Art Mysteries Disclosed 17 дней назад

    I wouldn't be surprised if a large part of those collections and scrolls was still in the Vatican's secret archives...

  • Zainur
    Zainur 19 дней назад

    I love going to my school's library.
    They got free wifi there

  • Cenobite Cenobite
    Cenobite Cenobite 21 день назад

    All books that are not the Quran must be destroyed

  • Loreman72
    Loreman72 22 дня назад

    It's quite a shame when an otherwise well-produced video comes up painfully short - Hypatia was murdered as part of citywide riots between rival civic factions, not because of her teaching. Please, stop spreading stupidity!

  • Boon Goon
    Boon Goon 22 дня назад

    F to pay respects

  • Müller Andy
    Müller Andy 24 дня назад

    Sooooo, whats the problem with AD? Why are you guys using CE?

  • DICE § Misterios
    DICE § Misterios 24 дня назад

    *_"El conocimiento es poder, así es la sociedad "civilizada".'_*
    Muy interesante e informativo reportaje, gracias Eli & TED.
    Muchos incendios asolaron la Biblioteca de Alejandría, de 4 a 7 como mínimo, grandes, como en cualquier construcción (..y más estando llena de 'libros/pergaminos' y hecha con vigas y estantes de madera!!). Sin embargo los gobernantes de los invasores tampoco eran tan tontos, y, antes de atacar sin miramientos la ciudad, salvaban lo que podían.
    Como bien dices, muchos de distintas religiones se adueñaron del sitio, y se quedaron con un montón de cosas. El cristianismo por ejemplo guardó casi todo (lo que aún quedaba, o sea muchos años después, y en total declive de la Biblioteca), en sus sótanos de las salas del actual Vaticano, e incluso también la Iglesia de Oriente proveyó muchos manuscritos a ésta (aunque algunos se desviaron a otros grupos o sociedades secretas)... y los árabes o musulmanes también se llevaron inmensas cosas, de ahí mucho de su conocimiento en ciencias aplicadas, e historia desconocida... Y por supuesto los romanos (antes del cristianismo), que se hacían con todo, y que trataron de trasladar cualquier conocimiento a su idiosincrasia (también de aquí surgieron muchas sectas..). Resumiendo, todos se quedaron y todos perdieron con algo y de todo un poco.
    Personalmente creo que un gran grueso del contenido de esa biblioteca se rescató... y que viajó por diferentes emplazamientos del mundo, ..y una de esas rutas fue Europa, e incluso alcanzando el mismo corazón de Rusia...., luego todo eso, ya en tiempos de la conquista musulmana de Iberia, mucho volvió al sur, a Granada concretamente, y bajo los pies de la Alhambra (las puertas Bermejas [Granada, España]) ahí se encuentra. .....
    En cualquier caso todo el conocimiento de la antigüedad, tanto en descubrimientos como de la historia verdadera y ancestral de las humanidades de la Tierra, y más conocimientos que aún hoy ni imaginamos, todo eso está en poder de unos pocos, que gobiernan el mundo, por intereses... y todo aquello, aquella idea primigenia de Alejandro Magno, de compartir y aprender, todo eso se ha perdido prácticamente por el interés de unos pocos: países, instituciones, sectas y religiones...

    • DICE § Misterios
      DICE § Misterios 24 дня назад

      _(traducción al Inglés en google translator)_
      *_"Knowledge is power, this is the "civilized" society.'_*
      Very interesting and informative report, thank you Eli & TED.
      Many fires ravaged the Library of Alexandria, from 4 to 7 at least, large, as in any construction (..and more being full of 'books / parchments' and made with wooden beams and shelves!). However, the rulers of the invaders were not so foolish either, and, before ruthlessly attacking the city, they saved what they could.
      As you say, many of different religions took over the site, and they kept a lot of things. Christianity, for example, kept almost everything (what still remained, that is, many years later, and in total decline of the Library), in its cellars in the rooms of the current Vatican, and even the Eastern Church provided many manuscripts to this one. (although some deviated to other groups or secret societies) ... and the Arabs or Muslims also took immense things, hence much of their knowledge in applied sciences, and unknown history ... And of course the Romans (before the Christianity), who did everything, and who tried to transfer any knowledge to their idiosyncrasies (also many sects came from here ..). In short, everyone stayed and everyone lost something and everything a little.
      Personally, I believe that a large part of the contents of this library was rescued ... and that it traveled to different locations in the world ... and one of those routes was Europe, and even reaching the very heart of Russia ..., then everything that, already in times of the Muslim conquest of Iberia, much returned to the south, to Granada specifically, and under the feet of the Alhambra (the Bermejas gates [Granada, Spain]) is there. .....
      In any case all the knowledge of the antiquity, as much in discoveries as of the true and ancestral history of the Earth's humanities, and more knowledge than even today we do not imagine, all that is in the power of a few, that govern the world, for interests ... and all that, that primal idea of ​​Alexander the Great, of sharing and learning, all that has been lost practically by the interest of a few: countries, institutions, sects and religions ...

  • Kyle Lovell
    Kyle Lovell 25 дней назад

    Religions led to end of the library, henceforth religion is the reason we don't flying cars and robot dogs and lab grown meat and haven't already beaten climate change.

  • Phil Werner
    Phil Werner 25 дней назад

    north indicate shop mass on gene commitment warning forty thin lead.

  • Niko Weit
    Niko Weit 26 дней назад

    Mine indigenous power disk service boy away skin mandate staff withdraw.

  • Yug Mehta
    Yug Mehta 26 дней назад

    It's sad about what happened to library of Alexandria, but we can explore the hidden archives of Vatican before the history repeats.

  • Debasmita Mukherjee
    Debasmita Mukherjee 26 дней назад

    Gracie wins

  • thuy nguyen
    thuy nguyen 27 дней назад

    Omg omg any potterheads here!

  • halah
    halah 28 дней назад

    religious ppl r the worst

  • Peter Kauffner
    Peter Kauffner 28 дней назад

    The only ancient source that deals directly with what happened to the library is Plutarch's Life of Caesar. Plutarch's briefly states that the library burned down in a fire Caesar started in harbor. Plutarch spent time in Alexandria and wrote around AD 100. If the Library still existed in Plutarch's time, surely he would have noticed.

  • xiangzhi meng
    xiangzhi meng 28 дней назад

    What was the paper made of?

  • A.I.H Ar6
    A.I.H Ar6 29 дней назад

    Surely religious fear.

  • CutSheet Charlie
    CutSheet Charlie 29 дней назад

    She burned the library because it didn't fit her narrative.😁

  • Somali pirate who's actually somali
    Somali pirate who's actually somali 29 дней назад +1

    You can probably find some of my comments in the library
    Edit: my name is aristotle btw

  • Linh Hoàng
    Linh Hoàng 29 дней назад

    Such tragic event that would help us fully understand the word "tragedy"

  • Alex Shkurti
    Alex Shkurti Месяц назад

    The golden time of Greece...RIP

  • Yay Turtle
    Yay Turtle Месяц назад

    Wasn’t ptolemy I a fourteen year-old boy?

  • mahmoud salah
    mahmoud salah Месяц назад

    Well, Christians killed hypatia after killing the for fun and left the library for muslims to burn .. bla bla bla

  • Bookish
    Bookish Месяц назад

    Super interesting.

  • Vivek Reddy Medapati
    Vivek Reddy Medapati Месяц назад

    Jullius ceasear is a waste fellow !

  • Henk Bakker
    Henk Bakker Месяц назад

    Sales silver weak table jaw meanwhile reporter racial

  • Jarod Farrant
    Jarod Farrant Месяц назад

    Has any of libraries books survived? This was one of history’s tragedy’s but did any of have survive?

  • Hard Truth
    Hard Truth Месяц назад

    I have boycotted Ted since they censored Graham Hancock but I watch this one video because the subject is interesting.

  • Exceptional Perception
    Exceptional Perception Месяц назад

    What is it with religious leaders and burning anything that doesn’t partake in their religion.
    I feel it wasn’t that they thought it was blasphemy I think it was just pure arrogance.
    Because most of the text isn’t even in the native language and even if it was translated it would cover many different subjects sooo... Even more disturbing is there are more benefits than disadvantages to keeping the knowledge. Like knowing that my enemy and all that jazz. Can’t learn anything if you burn everything till there’s nothing to learn.

  • Stephanie Lim
    Stephanie Lim Месяц назад

    If I can just time travel, I'll travel by the time before the Alexandria had been lost and take all the inscriptions.

  • vuong hoang
    vuong hoang Месяц назад

    Oh, one of the historical venue has been disappeared, if not, there would be an additional attraction alongside the Pyramids in Egypt.

  • Bernie Burns
    Bernie Burns Месяц назад

    vaticancatholic dot com for the truth

  • Onehappydawg
    Onehappydawg Месяц назад +2

    I see you only mention the one person the “Catholic Church” murdered and you said nothing about how many the Muslims murdered and apparently they were the last ones controlling the library.
    When Catholics are involved you really shouldn’t refer to them as “Christian”. If you ask almost any Catholic are they a Christian they will say, “No, I’m Catholic.”

    • John Isaac Felipe
      John Isaac Felipe Месяц назад +2

      Well, they are christian, at that time there was no formal division in the church (even though there already existed the celtic, gaulic, western roman, and the eastern churches)

  • Chris Shaskin
    Chris Shaskin Месяц назад

    The scroll index was like a Flintstones internet.

  • Hans Siegel
    Hans Siegel Месяц назад

    Multiculturalism and diversity supporters employ blasphemy accusations to silence critics. They destroy art, science and literature when offended. Its much easier to destroy digital repositories of knowledge than was done to paper ,etc media of the past.

  • Elmaestrodemusica
    Elmaestrodemusica Месяц назад

    If you want to talk about history, why use C.E.???

    • BigDogJang0
      BigDogJang0 Месяц назад

      BCE (before common era) and CE (common era) are secular. BC and AD stand for "before Christ" and "anno domini" (Latin for "in the year of our lord", though sometimes it's replaced by the English "after death" [referring to Jesus' crucifixion]).

  • Supertomiman
    Supertomiman Месяц назад +2

    I sense a very explicit anti-Christian sentiment in this video, what a shame...

  • Mike Miller
    Mike Miller Месяц назад

    Please do not say "CE". It is a meaningless term. Use the plain old AD or, if you can't stand that, then say "X years ago".

  • Abu Yusuf At-Thabit
    Abu Yusuf At-Thabit Месяц назад


    • BigDogJang0
      BigDogJang0 Месяц назад

      I don't like something, therefore it's a lie.

    • Abu Yusuf At-Thabit
      Abu Yusuf At-Thabit Месяц назад

      Do you think the library’s of Baghdad were populated with religious text only ???

  • Johnny M Gonzalez
    Johnny M Gonzalez Месяц назад

    Interesting. Life truly is nothing but a endless circle.

  • Jerry Hasselson
    Jerry Hasselson Месяц назад

    Bezos destroyed IMDb message boards, a treasure trove of cinematic information,!

  • Richard Garza
    Richard Garza Месяц назад

    The enemy. Or, the oppressed become the oppressor.

  • RadddahTat
    RadddahTat Месяц назад

    Religion strikes again 🤦‍♂️

  • msanioura
    msanioura Месяц назад

    When the Muslims reach Alexandria the library wasn't exist

  • Cyan Striker
    Cyan Striker Месяц назад +1

    I think the new rulers is the reincarnation of 1st new ruler of Alexandria and he/she might've planned to bury the library whole or scattered all of the informations hidden and unknown location as decades pass this work was succeeded by next rulers then the scrolls were eventually swallowed by earth and became one with the earth and for the building i think they destroyed it and reused it for other constructions cause it said that the rulers don't want to etc. with the library.
    That is my theory.

  • Stanley Chaney
    Stanley Chaney Месяц назад

    What really happened? The Jews bought it and sold it back to twice to them twice the price....with interest

  • Joshua Klinger
    Joshua Klinger Месяц назад

    ahhhh, finally that voice!! You should have this guy narrate more often. He's the best!

  • Ujjwal Tripathi
    Ujjwal Tripathi Месяц назад

    ‘Again, Religion poisons everything’ ~ Christopher Hitchens

  • Mary Faustus
    Mary Faustus Месяц назад

    J.K. Rowling? Really?

  • 3ICE
    3ICE Месяц назад

    That tone change into modern times at the end of this video worried me a little. (Thought it'd be an #ad transition.) But it turned out to be nothing. So glad it wasn't a blurb for a paid online backup solution of sorts. Just pure education. Thank you!

  • Yahya Shaikh
    Yahya Shaikh Месяц назад

    library of bagdad was also big loss....

  • Dz Hadjer
    Dz Hadjer Месяц назад

    This reminds me of ohara's doom