Migraines: Not Just Another Headache

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  • Опубликовано: 18 мар 2014
  • If you've never had a migraine, you might think it's just a really bad headache. But if you've ever had them, or you know someone who does, you know that they're much worse -- and much more complicated -- than that. Hank explains the biology behind this disorder of the central nervous system, and how it can be treated.
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    Sources:
    www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/migraine-headache/basics/definition/con-20026358
    www.migrainetrust.org/factsheet-migraine-what-is-it-10504
    www.lef.org/protocols/health_concerns/migraine_03.htm
    www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17970989
    umm.edu/health/medical/reports/articles/migraine-headaches
    www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/02/10/what-not-to-say-to-people-with-migraine_n_4745863.html

Комментарии • 3 331

  • Sarah Leonard
    Sarah Leonard 3 дня назад

    Yup, and with this grab bag of awful symptoms you never know which ones you're going to suffer from one attack to the next. I've had everything from an otherwise normal headache accompanied by a strange numbness that travels up one arm, across my face, and down the other arm, to painless episodes of slurred speech and greyed-out vision, to an excruciating headache that came on like a thunderclap and was so bad I broke one of my teeth by clenching my jaw too hard (to be fair, it was a crown, not a healthy tooth). Mostly I get the "otherwise normal" headaches, so I consider myself lucky. My heart goes out to all of you who suffer intensely painful migraines!

  • Silent Child
    Silent Child 4 дня назад

    I've literally gotten migraines after walking inside when it's bright outside. My eyes didn't adjust to the light so I got sick and dizzy and half blind with a throbbing headache that was enough to knock me over. That's the worst one I've ever had most of them are from dust pollen or weather.

  • SpookiestWaifu
    SpookiestWaifu 8 дней назад

    U get so annoyed when people call headaches, migraines. I've had times where I couldn't see anything because of a migraine, pretty much fully blind.

  • John Boone
    John Boone 16 дней назад

    I've had a migraine before. So far it's only happened once, but by God was it the worst thing I've ever experienced. Those of you who deal with them on a more regular basis, you have deepest sympathies.

  • Tramixor
    Tramixor 17 дней назад

    I have migraines without headaches. I have eye pain and constant vomiting instead.

  • Maxime Dijkstra
    Maxime Dijkstra 18 дней назад

    Am i the Only one who does bot feel my arm during a migraine

  • Lisa F
    Lisa F 21 день назад

    I once got a migraine at school... I slowly felt weaker, kind of like I was gonna fall over, and then the nausea rolled in. I literally had to run to the washroom to throw up. I threw up quite a few times, and on the drive home, I had to wear sunglasses because my eyes were super sore and sensitive. I ended up spending a lot of the day in a cool, really dark room😶

  • Solar Fizz
    Solar Fizz 22 дня назад +1

    I've never even had a headache

  • Kingandhorse
    Kingandhorse 25 дней назад

    Important, i had severe migranes for many years causing some causes to hosptalise me, the cause was a back injury, if you suffer from back migranes i HIGHLY reccomend seeing a chiropractor for a check on your neck, that is what caused mine, he took me through some treatment and i havent had a migrane for 8-9 months now! It might just help you!

  • TheDerpy Kitty
    TheDerpy Kitty 25 дней назад

    Damn. I’ve been having loads of this recently. It’s either I’m sleeping or dying from these.

  • The Cat Ate My Shoe
    The Cat Ate My Shoe 26 дней назад

    I take Maxalt for mine.

  • Albino Jellyfish
    Albino Jellyfish 27 дней назад

    I get migraines, I think that my main trigger is dehydration. Al, though some times it’s weather change. My typical one is about 10-12 hours.

  • Expose Me
    Expose Me 29 дней назад

    I have a migraine right now

  • Martina Soldevilla
    Martina Soldevilla 29 дней назад

    got my first attack last night wtf i dont know if im exaggerating or my brain is going to replace my heart for imitating the beat of my heart and it feels like its going to crack my freaking skull

  • Charlie202
    Charlie202 Месяц назад

    Accurate. I get chronic migraines with my aura being severe double vision and triggers being weather, light, literally anything abnormal and it usually lasts about 5-7 hours of throbbing pain on my tempols. It's genetic, from my mom's side. Taken every pill known to man, but they don't usually work for a while

  • Emm Jones
    Emm Jones Месяц назад

    He mentioned strong smells and that triggers migraines for me. Scented candles, air freshners, perfumes, some flowers...

  • Kermit The Frog
    Kermit The Frog Месяц назад

    UGHHHHHHHHHHHHHH IM LITERALLY 14 AND I CANT GEY THROUGH A DAY WITHOUT THE ANXIETY OF HAVING ONE OF THESE THINGS ;_; I almost killed myself

  • Brandon Diaz
    Brandon Diaz Месяц назад

    It’s a good thing I have several different brains. So if one brains hurts, I take it out, but in the fridge let it cool down, and then put a colder brain in my head and then boom migraines gone. Deal with it.

  • Uvaldo Luna
    Uvaldo Luna Месяц назад

    I’ve never had one. Or I don’t think so.

  • Miciah Turnbough
    Miciah Turnbough Месяц назад

    Like I thought only females can get them

  • Miciah Turnbough
    Miciah Turnbough Месяц назад

    I just had my first one today

  • Kathryn Spaulding
    Kathryn Spaulding Месяц назад

    Thank you so much! I've had them since I was young and I've experienced far to many people who don't believe migraines can be "that bad". I'd never wish it on anyone, but it's so tiring trying to explain it to those who can't comprehend it.

  • MrMiikeeeey
    MrMiikeeeey Месяц назад

    I've had a migraine a few times lost vision each time then vomited it's so bad

  • your uncool niece
    your uncool niece Месяц назад

    I used to get excruciatingly painful migraines along with vomiting. My mom always insisted on keeping those awful Glade plug in air fresheners with super strong smells and it would make it so much worse. Thankfully after puberty my migraines went away, but migraines were the worst pain I've ever felt in my life.

  • FaiLovex3
    FaiLovex3 Месяц назад

    So everything causes a migraine

  • cairy hart
    cairy hart 2 месяца назад

    Have daily hemiplegic migraine type 2 and often Facepalm multiple times during videos that "describe" migraines but this one is actually pretty darn good. Respect.

  • flames
    flames 2 месяца назад

    I’ve never had one and my brother just had one and everyone was like “it’s his first migraine” and blah blah and I was like wow this must be really important and I was very right

  • Jack kenneth Beyer
    Jack kenneth Beyer 2 месяца назад

    Are people with depression more likely to have migraines because of the drop in serotonin levels?

  • Maharaja and Little Girl Podcasts
    Maharaja and Little Girl Podcasts 2 месяца назад

    This dude speaks so fast. Honestly i got a migraine listening to him ffs

  • acrobatsutr
    acrobatsutr 2 месяца назад

    The pain of a migraine is unbearable. All you gotta do is tough it out, sometimes medication won't even work. Honestly I'd rather go through childbirth, break my ribs and have kidney stones instead of experiencing the pain of a headache ever again. If I could trade it in for another type of pain, I would!!

  • Brenna Omerzo
    Brenna Omerzo 2 месяца назад

    www.begslist.com/campaign/17619/debilitating-migraine-sufferer

  • Tara Maners
    Tara Maners 2 месяца назад

    1:15 I yawned 🤣

  • JJcraft
    JJcraft 2 месяца назад

    Thanks

  • GothicGamer2012
    GothicGamer2012 2 месяца назад

    I have migraines on a rare occasion. My warning is a small spot in my peripheral vision in which I can't see. Within that spot of blindness I see what looks like a lightening strike and it flashes extremely bright, vivid colours as it grows over the rest of my vision. Very difficult to read or see where I'm going at that point. Then comes dizziness, fatigue, light and sound sensitivity and nausea.
    I take a couple of naproxen at first onset and lay in a dark room which prevents it progressing but the light sensitivity will set it off again if I'm not careful about slowly getting used to the light again. I usually spend an hour or so getting used to the light again by slowly opening a blind bit by bit every 10 minutes. Even when the visual aura is gone I can't just open the window and be fine as it will immediately come back. The worst one I had lasted an entire day and I still felt crap for the next 2 days.
    It doesn't help that it was also my first one, took place in the middle of a college class and I had no idea wtf was wrong with me, just that I was suddenly losing my vision. That's definitely scary losing your vision without warning and you don't know why.
    Migraines are worse than headaches by far. I'd take a headache any day to a migraine. At least I can still function with a headache.

  • Aidan Mousavi
    Aidan Mousavi 3 месяца назад +1

    who's watching this while having a migraine. God sake my head is dying
    EDIT: OW OW OW OW OW OW OW OW OW. AAAHHHHH MY HEAD. OW OW

  • Amy S
    Amy S 3 месяца назад

    Soooo... Basically Women get headache's / migraine's all our lives! lmao :P (me included)

  • NullBite
    NullBite 3 месяца назад

    I remember a few years ago I started experiencing ocular migraines that stopped after a few weeks but they would last for about 30 minutes and I would lose a lot of my vision and the first time it happened it was terrifying because I thought I was going blind

  • SacuL
    SacuL 3 месяца назад

    i always get migranes and they are so painful, i get aura first then it goes away and i get a fat migrane headache for like 6 hours, and plus my eyes are really sore after the aura. you do not want to get them

  • That guy under the staircase
    That guy under the staircase 3 месяца назад

    I dont know how Im supposed to tell if its a migraine

  • The Watchers
    The Watchers 3 месяца назад

    I get migraines all the time and they are painful

  • Ali Cham
    Ali Cham 3 месяца назад

    Smells like petrol, burning, and asphalt are big triggers for my migraines. It's horrible when you're going about your daily life and you smell something and you have to rush to try and prevent a migraine, but you know it's only a matter of time until one sets in and ruins your next few days.

  • Jay's Canine
    Jay's Canine 3 месяца назад

    Ahhhh **migraine start**
    Ah FU**
    I can't see(I'm also half blind in my right eye and I'm also Colour blind. Great.)

  • Allison B.
    Allison B. 3 месяца назад

    I get migraines about 3 times a year on average. Surprisingly they happened at one yearly event multiple times in a row. I think you can understand why I don't like sticking around the event.

  • Karin Melby
    Karin Melby 3 месяца назад

    My dad gets migraines so when I get them, he knows what's up. Sounds don't bother me, but light and smells do really bad. So I hide in my room, turn on some metal softly, use my lavender vanilla pillow mist (the one scent that actually helps) and sleep for 12-36 hours. Longest migraine I've had lasted 4 days. That was hell. It was the only one that actually made me vomit. Usually I get a bit queasy, but never throw up for real.

  • Tina Abrahamson
    Tina Abrahamson 3 месяца назад

    Och! Migraines are truly miserable. I get them. 😟

  • Mya Jackson
    Mya Jackson 3 месяца назад

    I have one right now it’s hurts a lot

  • TidalPopcorn75
    TidalPopcorn75 3 месяца назад

    got an ad for doctors who specialize in migraines...

  • Jacob
    Jacob 4 месяца назад +1

    Oh Jesus if I had to choose between working for an entire year non stop or having a migraine I'd pick work all year

  • Wicked Kitten
    Wicked Kitten 4 месяца назад +1

    I suffer from mirgranes for about 5 years now.
    My worst trigger is my mental health. I also suffer from bpd and my physical and psychological well beeing is direktly linked.
    Have to send your video to my bf so he will understand, migraines are not like his usual "headache after a heavy night out"

  • Tim L
    Tim L 4 месяца назад

    If it is caused by a sharp drop in serotonin why does MDMA not cause migraine?

  • Jasper Stevens
    Jasper Stevens 4 месяца назад

    I had a five day headache with photosensetivity and nausea and was told it was sinuses 👌🏻

  • vf fa
    vf fa 4 месяца назад +1

    Aura migraine... You will vomit and then you will want to smash your head into a wall so you can go unconscious... Ahh... I love it

  • ted myrick
    ted myrick 4 месяца назад

    i get these aura an they a have a panic attack i get them months apart but once had them back to back days I've had maybe 8-12 the last three years. I have terrible headaches and drink a lot cola and i'm on methadone maintenance

  • DeathbyPixels
    DeathbyPixels 4 месяца назад

    When I get a migraine, I always get a bunch of big black spots in my vision, peaking around noon-ish and giving me tunnel vision, then disappearing as the pain sets in and I am out for the day. Luckily, they only last for a day.

  • Kendall Kotcher
    Kendall Kotcher 4 месяца назад

    When I got my first migraine it was so bad I didn’t know what it was so my workplace had to call 911. All my vitals were fine so they didn’t know what it was either (which I find troubling...)
    It started with an aura. I realized I couldn’t see one of my campers across the field so I sat out. Then I realized I couldn’t see the campers sitting directly next to me. Then I started to get an extremely bad headache. Then my whole left side of the body went numb and that’s when I freaked out 😔when EMS couldn’t figure it out, I went to the doctor and they immediately knew what it was-although after driving there I ended up puking... I didn’t even know it ran in my family. Just not fun 😂

  • Kitty Mckenzie
    Kitty Mckenzie 4 месяца назад

    I get aura, then I get mine .. I get them rarely .. but they are sooo bad I have to go to hospital

  • Jihyo Twice •o•
    Jihyo Twice •o• 4 месяца назад

    I lost vison during my migraine

  • I'm the gayest gay of all gays but anyways
    I'm the gayest gay of all gays but anyways 4 месяца назад

    I'd recommend laying down in complete darkness, and try to fall asleep. Works for me.

  • Liz Armstrong
    Liz Armstrong 4 месяца назад

    This was the video I was looking for I had one before I thought I was taking a stroke

  • Selene Ardens
    Selene Ardens 4 месяца назад

    Can you guys explain Rorschach tests (Ink blots)? Do they really tell you anything about your personality or just bull?

  • That Girl
    That Girl 4 месяца назад

    Turns out I had my first migraine yesterday. It was mild though, which I didn't know migraines could be. But since I'll probably have more in the future I'm very worried I'll have bad ones.

  • The83rdTrombonist
    The83rdTrombonist 4 месяца назад

    I need a video on cluster headaches. I get migraines but cluster headaches... I'd take a migraine any day over one of those

  • Trine418
    Trine418 4 месяца назад

    I once had a migraine with a lot of symptoms like a stroke. I experienced numbness in the right side of my body, slurred speech, and I could no longer write textmessages on my phone ( I couldn't recognise the letters). I got extremely scared because I was sure something was seriously wrong with my brain, and I went to the doctor. After 4-5 hours with nausea and extreme headache I would vomit and all of a sudden all symptoms were gone. So glad the doctor was able to correctly diagnose me immediately cause I was freaking out!

  • preClassic
    preClassic 4 месяца назад

    Oh no... this is why I had a migraine for three weeks until I started taking my SSRI again... oh no

  • Victoria Fosler
    Victoria Fosler 4 месяца назад

    When I get a migraine, I briefly have a sensation of euphoria, then I see auras for an unknown amount of time in which I run to sit down. The migraine then hits and I can do nothing but wait for the pain to make me pass out and hope I'm still functional when I come too. I've had them since puberty hit and they're more terrifying now that I'm in college and could strike at any time. Stay strong, fellow sufferers.

  • Thisnamestillsucks
    Thisnamestillsucks 4 месяца назад

    Smelling sweet things gives me a migraine.

  • Fuzzy_FoxAndFuzzy_Dog
    Fuzzy_FoxAndFuzzy_Dog 5 месяцев назад

    Never had on

  • SaveTheCraig
    SaveTheCraig 5 месяцев назад

    People say you get eye problems when you have a headache, but I usually don't. I always thought I was getting migraines all the time, but what if I'm not??? Most of the symptoms he really don't apply to me. Ok here's how my "migraines" go. It starts with my head hurting, then it gets worse and worse, until I can't be in a room with loud noises or bright lights. I go to my room, in complete darkness, and fall asleep. Sometimes I wake up and go throw up, but that's it. I sleep all day, and wake up and it's fine. Well most of the time at least. Sometimes I wake up and still feel like crap lol. Sometimes. But yeah. Some people have told me that it's linked to my eye sight. I need glasses because I have astigmatism. So when I go for a long time without them I get migraines. But I also got them when I wear them. Very frequently, actually. It's very weird. Since I got my glasses my migraines have gone down though. I get them less often. Wow this is probably the longest comment I've made. Probably a pain to read. Ok I'm done now. XD

  • Sydney Tonkin
    Sydney Tonkin 5 месяцев назад

    So could antidepressants potentially treat migraines? Or rather prevent them?

    • Jason Paul
      Jason Paul 4 месяца назад

      Got prescribed 'Nortriptyline' which is marketed as one and it's the only thing I've ever used to suppress them almost entirely. Wasn't big on the idea at first but didn't have much a choice and it actually worked. Only bad thing is you need to keep taking them because if you stop for a week or so, the migraines will be back like normal and it takes days before it takes effect again.

  • e7seif
    e7seif 5 месяцев назад

    About the "dark, quiet room"....This isn't always the case. I know I'm not the only person with migraines who seeks out distractions from what is otherwise a torturous nightmare. If I can, I will watch Netflix, browse the internet, listen to podcasts, or try to play simple games. If I can do these things with a loved one, all the better. (Because migraines, and the side effects of the powerful meds for them, can be scary.) Anything to keep from being left alone in a dark room with the pain. However, it can depend very much on the type of pain I'm having. I can even semi-function and complete simple chores if I'm having sharp, "bright" pain. The deep, grinding pain is the nightmare pain that really stops me, but I'll usually at least have a radio on low to focus on. Again, anything to not focus on the pain for even a moment here and there, is welcome. It's all still misery, and not fun like doing these things when not in pain, mind you.

  • Wazzlesmo
    Wazzlesmo 5 месяцев назад

    I first got a migraine in the 6th grade and my leg and arm went numb and I couldn’t talk and my mom took me to the hospital because she thought that I was having a stroke

  • Sng Yi Long
    Sng Yi Long 5 месяцев назад

    my migraine triggers when im in 1 relaxing spot(like when you wake up) and when i start walking my migraine some times drop me to the ground for a few secs and run away

  • Sng Yi Long
    Sng Yi Long 5 месяцев назад

    you:My-Grain
    Google:Me-Grain

  • epsbandy
    epsbandy 5 месяцев назад

    Can anyone really explain Cluster Migraines to me? My doctor thinks that's what I have, but isn't sure and my usual sources are somewhat vage.

  • Saritha Reddy
    Saritha Reddy 5 месяцев назад

    Here's something sweet for all the migraines sufferers 🍫🍭🍬. You are strong and going great 💙

  • Jude Sir
    Jude Sir 5 месяцев назад

    Both my parents have migrainesI learned todayTHE HARD WAY

  • Seliva Kim
    Seliva Kim 5 месяцев назад

    it's hard to breathe too

  • snowman 1
    snowman 1 5 месяцев назад

    I was standing up and everything around me look black but only the center part that I can see what is that?

  • Bagsdto75
    Bagsdto75 5 месяцев назад

    This tought me alot about migraines

  • Ninjapro1477
    Ninjapro1477 5 месяцев назад

    a thing that happens to me is after a long time of my sitting if i stand i start to see black then i feel some pain and start to lose balance but it only lasts a few seconds but this stopped happening to me a few months ago

  • Jesus
    Jesus 5 месяцев назад

    I have migraines because of previous brain surgery(cured me from severe epilepsy). Luckily they're very rare for me, and I find that as a very small price to pay to save my life.

  • topumasum
    topumasum 5 месяцев назад

    Please do a segment on asexual humans. Not asexual reproduction

  • TayTaylorslay
    TayTaylorslay 5 месяцев назад

    I never get migraines. I actually also rarely get headaches. The only time I get headaches is after extreme emotions, like crying.

  • kashyap Nupur
    kashyap Nupur 5 месяцев назад

    Medical cannabis helping migraines since the early ages

  • MiamiBoi
    MiamiBoi 6 месяцев назад

    I realize this comment is a few years late, however someone who suffers from chronic migraines i appreciate this! Many are ignorant to what one REALLY is.

  • Titanic
    Titanic 6 месяцев назад

    I've had a headache as worse as a migraine.. it felt like someone stabbing me in the head with 15 knifes.

  • DarkMirria1
    DarkMirria1 6 месяцев назад

    I get migraines often. Result of past concussions. I sleep, take super motrin, hide out in a dark silent room for hours, even but ice packs and cold wet or damp cloths on my forehead and behind my neck. Still takes hours for it to go away, sometimes days. Joy.

  • Oliver Reid
    Oliver Reid 6 месяцев назад

    Thankyou for this. I've had migraines my whole life, usually triggered by stress. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Sometimes though, I've had the nausea & perceptual distortion (aura) phase, but without the blinding pain phase that usually succeeds it. In me, sounds get clipped, with things seeming to be underwater. My colour vision get seriously strange with everything looking like it's through a blue filter - skin tones get bizarre as people look purple. Reading or watching tv becomes difficult as I can't concentrate on the flow of information.
    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
    Migraines don't respond to the usual headache drugs, such as Opiods & Benzos. My experience has been significantly improved by two medications: Naramig (Serotonin Agonist) & Ketorolac (Anti-inflammatory).
    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
    One interesting fact: I get my migraines from my mum. She gets the pain headache behind her right eye & I always get mine behind my left eye. What this means, I've got no idea...

  • Megan Thompson
    Megan Thompson 6 месяцев назад

    Migraines are one of the most painful thing a human can experience and when I get them I feel like rolling around on the floor screaming and when I get them I cannot lay in my bed and open my windows to get some fresh air otherwise my mom thinks my neighbors will think I'm being hurt

  • tina
    tina 6 месяцев назад

    My migraine aura look like chunky flecks of glitter floating around the room and look real enough to touch. When I first got them I thought i'd lost my mind!

  • Jodi Henry
    Jodi Henry 6 месяцев назад

    Am a migraine. Suffered and am a guy

  • Dylan Parr
    Dylan Parr 6 месяцев назад

    Are they akin to cluster headaches at all or in any way? Has oxygen treatment or psilocin experimentation yielded any results whatsoever? I'm rather ill-informed on types of headaches and remedies/treatments.

  • Jeremiah Siwa
    Jeremiah Siwa 6 месяцев назад

    Hello, I know a lot of people who had constant headaches and they were completely freed from them at the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God (UCKG HelpCentre). It really helps and it’s been years since they had these headaches! Check them out!
    If you’re in the US, go on their website - www.universalusa.org
    Australia - www.uckg.org.au
    The UK - www.uckg.org
    New Zealand - www.uckg.co.nz/homenew.aspx
    South Africa - www.uckg.org.za

    If you need the details for any other place, feel free to search them up or contact them via their websites.

  • Mike Chambers
    Mike Chambers 6 месяцев назад

    Triptan drugs (like Zomig and Imitrex) are effective for many.
    Mayo Clinic pioneered the the use of Botox injections in the scalp as a migraine preventative. These injection are administered every 90 days (around $4K per treatment). They are (in our experience) effective in reducing the frequency of migraine and the severity of breakthrough attacks.

  • Werewolf Werewolf
    Werewolf Werewolf 6 месяцев назад

    When I see aura: Oh goodness I'm screwed

  • Opinionated Bastard
    Opinionated Bastard 6 месяцев назад

    but how much protein is in semen ?

  • Crimson Rose
    Crimson Rose 6 месяцев назад

    Before my migraine I get the Aura, and get off balance. During it, the Aura gets worse, the migraine sets in, I'll feel nauseous, and I become EXTREMELY sensitive to light and sound. I also tend to feel like I'm constantly going to pass out.
    After the migraine, I'm weak, and I get this lasting, pounding headache that gets worse when I move around.

  • Nicole Mo
    Nicole Mo 6 месяцев назад

    Is red eyes a symptom too? I been having this headache for about 5 days now and my eyes have been red for the past 3.

  • Why Even Try?
    Why Even Try? 6 месяцев назад

    I fainted during the school day,while running track.Before that I kept telling my self "only a few more hours!Only a few more hours!"

  • PizNey Works
    PizNey Works 6 месяцев назад

    Migraines are HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL HELL 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